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jeune magique et intellig

同癌症有关的8种危险事情

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Slide 1 of 34:    Cancer is the No.   2 cause of death in the US, second only to heart disease.    It fundamentally affects the way our cells grow and divide,   changing them in perverse ways. All cancer is a result of damage   or genetic mutations in our DNA. The nasty, debilitating class of   diseases spreads through a body like an invading army, as toxic   cells grow relentlessly into unruly tumors.    Some cases of cancer are out of our control, determined by   genetic defects and predispositions passed down from one   generation to the next, or spurred by genetic changes we undergo   through our lifetime.    But we also know that breathing in certain substances, eating   specific things, and even using some kinds of plastics ups the   risk of developing some deadly cancers.    Here are some known carcinogens (cancer-causers), as well as a   few more things scientists are zeroing in on as prime suspects.

癌症是美国的第二大死因(No. 2 cause of death in the U.S),仅次于心脏病。

它从根本上影响我们的细胞生长和分裂的方式,以不正当的方式改变它们。 所有癌症都是我们DNA中的损伤或基因突变的结果。这种令人讨厌的,令人衰弱的疾病像入侵军队一样在身体传播,因为毒细胞能无情地成长为不规则的肿瘤。

我们知道,吸入某些物质,吃特定的东西,甚至使用某种塑料都有发展致命癌症的风险。

以下是一些已知的致癌物质(致癌物质),以及作为主要嫌疑让科学家们所关注的一些事情。

Slide 2 of 34:    Scientists now know that eating too much sweet stuff can not only   lead to diabetes, but actively   damage your cells and increase your risk of developing   cancer.    But that's not all.    New research suggests that sugar may fuel tumor growth in the   body - because cancer loves to use sugar as fuel.    "The hyperactive sugar consumption of cancerous cells leads to a   vicious cycle of continued stimulation of cancer development and   growth" Johan Thevelein, a Belgian molecular biologist,    said in October after the release of his study.    Scientists say that the groundbreaking research gives us a better   understanding of how sugar and cancer interact and that it could   one day help create targeted diet strategies for patients.    NOW WATCH:    The differences that matter between Splenda, Equal, Sweet'N Low,   and sugar >>

科学家现在知道,吃太多甜食不仅会导致糖尿病,还会积极损害你的细胞并增加你患癌症的风险。

但那还不是全部。

新的研究表明,糖可能会促进体内肿瘤的生长 - 因为癌症喜欢用糖作为燃料。

“糖的消耗导致癌症细胞过度活跃,持续刺激癌症生长。”比利时分子生物学家约翰·夫莱因(Johan Thevelein)在去年10月发表他的研究后表示。

科学家们说,这项开创性的研究让我们更好地了解了糖和癌症之间的相互作用,并且有朝一日它可以帮助为患者制定有针对性的饮食策略。

Slide 3 of 34:    Any food that comes in a crinkly plastic wrapper, is industrially   sealed, and is designed to last for months without spoiling may   be a quick on-the-go fix for a hunger pang, but it's also most   likely increasing your risk of cancer.    Scientists in France recently    zeroed in on a link between people who eat more processed   foods and those who develop cancer.    They're not sure yet whether the problem is the shelf-stabilizing   ingredients, the plastic packaging, or some combination of the   two. And because their study was correlative, it's possible   there's some other hidden factor at work.    NOW WATCH:    I ate nothing but 'healthy' fast food for a week - here's what   happened >>

加工食品

任何以褶皱塑料包装材料制成的食品都是工业密封的,并且可以持续使用数月而不会变质,这可能是一种快速消除饥饿感的方法,但它也极有可能增加患癌症的风险。

法国科学家最近将摄入更多加工食品的人与患癌症的人联系起来。

Slide 4 of 34:    Though the tobacco industry tried to cover this one up, we've   known for years that tobacco smoke has at least 70    cancer-causing chemicals inside.    And it's not just smokers who are affected - people who inhale   secondhand smoke can develop deadly forms of cancer too.    The    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says: "Nonsmokers   who are exposed to secondhand smoke at home or at work increase   their risk of developing lung cancer by 20-30%."    People who chew their tobacco are at increased risk too.

抽烟

虽然烟草业试图掩盖这一点,但多年来我们已经知道烟草烟雾中至少含有70种致癌化学物质。

并且不只是受影响的吸烟者 - 吸入二手烟的人也会患上致命的癌症。

美国疾病控制和预防中心表示:“在家中或工作场所接触二手烟的非吸烟者患肺癌的风险增加20-30%。”

咀嚼烟草的人也面临更大的风险。

Slide 5 of 34:    According to the Skin Cancer Foundation, people who use a tanning   bed before age 35 increase their   risk of developing melanoma by 75%.    Regular sun can hurt you too, so wearing protective clothing and   sunscreen and finding shade are good ideas if you're going to be   out in the sunshine for more   than 15 minutes.

日晒和未受保护的阳光照射

根据皮肤癌基金会的说法,在35岁之前使用日晒床的人将患黑素瘤的风险增加75%。

经常晒太阳也会伤到你,所以如果你要在阳光下出去超过15分钟,穿着防护服和涂防晒霜并找到阴凉处都是好主意。

Slide 6 of 34:    Some people work with cancer-causing substances daily.    Those at risk of coming in contact with cancer-causing substances   on the job include:    • Aluminum workers.    • Painters.    • Tar pavers, who come in contact with the carcinogen benzene.    • Rubber manufacturers.    • Hairdressers    who deal with dyes every day.    • Nail-salon workers    breathing in dangerous fumes.

有毒化学品

有些人每天使用致癌物质。

那些有可能在工作中接触致癌物质的人包括:

•铝工。
•画家。
•使用与致癌物苯接触的焦油摊铺机。
•橡胶制造商。
•每天处理染料的理发师。
•呼吸危险烟雾的指甲沙龙工作人员。

Slide 7 of 34:    The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified   nighttime work as a probable   carcinogen in 2007. Scientists think working at night, and   working long hours into the darkness, can both mess with the   body's natural, circadian sleep and wake cycles.    The CDC has a full list   of occupational cancer hazards.

夜班

国际癌症研究机构在2007年将夜间工作归类于可能的致癌物质。科学家们认为夜间工作,长时间工作进入黑暗状态,可能会破坏身体的自然,昼夜睡眠和唤醒周期。

Slide 8 of 34:    Arsenic, a natural part of the Earth's crust, is toxic in   its inorganic form. It's often found in contaminated drinking   water in places like Bangladesh, or in spots where irrigation   systems for crops use arsenic water.    The World Health Organization says at least 140 million people in   50 countries drink water containing high levels of arsenic.    It's also one of the cancer-causing agents in tobacco.

砷是地壳的天然成分,其无机形态,而且有毒。 在孟加拉国这样农作物灌溉系统使用到砷水的地方,经常会发现饮用水被污染。

世界卫生组织表示,50个国家至少有1.4亿人饮用含有高浓度砷的水。

它也是烟草中致癌物质之一。

烤肉

Slide 9 of 34:    Smoky meats from the grill may be tender and tasty, but they   probably also increase your risk of cancer. That's because the   muscle meats contain compounds called heterocyclic amines, or   HCAs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs.       According to the National Cancer Institute, when meats like   beef, poultry, or fish are cooked over a hot open flame or   pan-fried at high temperatures, the fat and juices they release   into the fire spark flames with the dangerous chemicals inside   that then cook into the meat we eat.    They're not positive that these chemicals cause cancer, but in   lab tests they have been found to change DNA in ways that might   increase the risk of cancer.

烤架上的烟熏肉可能既嫩又好吃,但它们也可能增加患癌症的风险。 这是因为肌肉中含有称为杂环胺或HCA的化合物,以及多环芳烃或多环芳烃。

根据美国国家癌症研究所的说法,当牛肉,家禽或鱼类等肉类在热火上煮熟或在高温下煎炸时,会产生出危险化学物质。

研究人员并不认为这些化学物质会导致癌症,但在实验室测试中,他们发现它们可能增加癌症风险。

 

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